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Country info


Thailand (ประเทศไทย), officially the Kingdom of Thailand (ราชอาณาจักรไทย), formerly known as Siam (สยาม), is a country at the center of the Indochinese peninsula in Mainland Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar. Its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, and Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest.

With a total area of approximately 513,000 sq km (198,000 sq mi), Thailand is the world's 51st-largest country. It is the 20th-most-populous country in the world, with around 66 million people. The capital and largest city is Bangkok, which is Thailand's political, commercial, industrial, and cultural hub. About 75% of the population is ethnically Thai. Thai Chinese, those of significant Chinese heritage, are 14% of the population (while Thais with partial Chinese ancestry comprise up to 40% of the population). Thai Malays represent 3% of the population, with the remainder consisting of Mons, Khmers and various "hill tribes". The country's official language is Thai and the primary religion is Buddhism, which is practiced by around 95% of the population.

Thailand is a constitutional monarchy, under which form of government the King serves the People of Thailand as "Head of State". King Bhumibol Adulyadej, who has reigned since 1946 as Rama IX -- the ninth monarch of the Chakri Dynasty, is currently the world's longest-serving head of state and the country's longest-reigning monarch.

Since May 2014, the country has been governed by the National Council for Peace and Order headed by General Prayut Chan-o-cha, as the 29th Prime Minister of Thailand.


































Thailand experienced rapid economic growth between 1985 and 1996, becoming a newly industrialized country and a major exporter. Manufacturing, agriculture, and tourism are leading sectors of the economy.










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1. Occupational Safety, Health and Environment in Thailand

The rapid economic development of Thailand in the past decades brought about the expansion of industrial growth and diversification. Although such development helped the Kingdom make remarkable progress towards prosperity, it has also presented Thailand with new challenges in a wide variety of fields, including occupational safety and health (OSH). The application of new technologies and new materials to the work process may all bring new hazards. As a result, workers are more vulnerable to safety and health effects including the risk of occupational accidents that cause injury, death, disability or chronic illness as well as other economic losses, both direct and indirect. OSH is therefore a crucial issue that is directly related to the life and security of the workers who are important human resources for the country development.

The Government of Thailand has recognized the importance of OSH issues as many policies and relevant initiatives were introduced. The key events and developments of OSH in Thailand can be chronologically summarized as follow:

  • 1972         The first OSH law came into force as provisions under the “Announcement of the Revolutionary Party No. 103 Re: Labour Protection”.
  • 1976         Ministry of Interior released the “Notification on Safety and Health Welfare of Employees” under the “Announcement of the Revolutionary Party No. 103”.
  • 1983         “National Institute for the Improvement of Working Conditions and Environment (NICE)” was established under the collaboration with the International Labour Organization (ILO).
  • 1987         A series of 17 Notifications of the Ministry of Interior on various OSH aspects was issued.
  • 1998         “Labour Protection Act, B.E. 2541 (A.D. 1998)” was promulgated, replacing the “Announcement of the Revolutionary Party No. 103”.
  • 2002         The “1st Master Plan on Occupational Safety, Health and Environment” was developed and effective for 2002 – 2006.
  • 2007         The government announced the policy on “Decent Safety and Health for Workers” as the National OSH Agenda applied for all relevant sectors.
  • 2009         OSH Bureau was established under the reconstruction of the organization and the authority of Department of Labour Protection and Welfare by merging the previous 2 agencies; the Occupational Safety and Health Inspection Division (OSHID) and the National Institute for the Improvement of Working Conditions and Environment (NICE).
  • 2011         “Occupational Safety, Health and Environment Act, B.E. 2554 (A.D. 2011)” has become effective, as the main OSH law of Thailand.


2.  Current Situation and Statistics on Occupational Safety, Health and Environment

According to the data from Registration Administration Bureau – Ministry of Interior, Social Security Office – Ministry of Labour, and the National Statistical Office, total population of Thailand at the end of December 2014 was 65.12 million where 55.02 million were over 15 years of age. Of this group of population, 38.96 million were in labour force or available for work and 38.66 million were employed. Among these employed persons, 13.46 million were in agricultural sector and 25.20 million were in non-agricultural sector (manufacturing, construction, transportation, retail trade, service industry, and other businesses). Meanwhile, 0.22 and 0.08 million were unemployed persons and seasonal workers, respectively. Unemployment rate at the time was 0.60%. There were 22.1 million of informal workers in agriculture, trading and service sectors (including home-based workers, industrial outworkers and own account workers).

A total of 13.63 million of employed persons registered with the Social Security Office - Department of Labor, and hence, be covered under the social security scheme. In addition, there were total of 422,748 establishments throughout the country.

Considering the statistics on occupational accidents and injuries in 2014 (based on unofficial report by Office of Workmen’s Compensation Fund - WCF), it is shown that employees were still vulnerable to hazardous works and facing high risk of occupational injuries. Among the 9.13 million employees under the workmen’s compensation coverage, there were 100,392 decided cases of occupational accidents and injuries, as classified by severity below:

-   Leave work < 3 days            68,940 cases

-   Leave work > 3 days            29,328 cases

-   Lost of organ                         1,485 cases

-   Disability                                  14 cases

-   Death                                    625 cases

The total amount of compensation paid was 1,284.10 million THB (not include the cases that claiming was in progress and not decided by the end of December 2014).


3. National Policies, Strategies, and Master Plans on Occupational Safety and Health

3.1 Government Policy

On Tuesday, 11 December 2007 the Thai Government (leading by General Surayud Chulanont, the prime minister at that time) had adopted the resolution to announce the policy on “Decent Safety and Health for Workers” as a National Agenda proposed by the Ministry of Labour (MOL). It is recognized that “labour” is the main factor to strengthen the economic system and ensure active trade liberalization with security by 2016. Collaboration from all relevant sectors is considered necessary to achieve the following 7 objectives, namely:

1) Labour’s work security has been promoted under the National Master Plan on Occupational Safety, Health and Environment

2) Labour in all sectors work under safe environment

3) Workers’ awareness and knowledge on OSH are improved

4) Occupational accident and injury rates are continuously reduced

5) OSH information is fully accessible by the workers

6) Workers are protected under effective health and safety surveillance system

7) Safety culture is built-up among workers

Various sets of Thai government during the past years had announced the national administration policy encompassing issues on labour management. These aimed at promotion and improvement of labour protection and welfare, with emphasis on employment conditions, occupational safety and health, as well as welfare and social protection.


3.2 Master Plan on Occupational Safety, Health and Environment

The Ministry of Labour of Thailand, by the Department of Labour Protection and Welfare, has issued the Master Plans on Occupational Safety, Health and Environment to provide directions for the development of OSH in Thailand. The 1st ever master plan was launched in 2001 and was effective for 2002-2006. This first plan consisted of 9 main topics; OSH standards development, implementation, OSH administration structure, expansion of the scope of OSH protection, OSH personnel development, OSH information system, OSH research/study, prevention of occupational accidents and injuries, and promotion of OSH activities. Following the 1st Master Plan, the 2nd Master Plan was developed for 2007-2011. Under this 2nd Plan, 5 main strategies and 33 sub-projects were established with special emphasis on the enhancement of skill and performance among OSH personnel, improvement of efficiency in OSH management, encouragement and promotion of OSH collaboration among relevant sectors, development of OSH information system and dissemination. At the end of this 2nd Master Plan period, the 3rd Master Plan was developed as the National Master Plan on Occupational Safety, Health and Environment (2012-2016). This 3rd master plan has been approved by the government cabinet, and is currently effective.

The concept and principles in administration of the National OSH Master Plan has been based on the continuously review of the action plans and previous results. The National Agenda “Decent Safety and Health for Workers” has been placed as the main target to achieve, with the following missions:

1)     Establish or develop OSH standards

2)     Monitor, control and follow-up OSH issues those are problematic

3)     Develop and promote OSH activities

4)     Develop OSH management system

The 3rd Master Plan covers 5 strategic issues as follows:

Strategy 1 - Promoting labour protection with effective OSH standards

Strategy 2 - Promoting and strengthening the capacity of OSH networks

Strategy 3 - Developing and managing OSH knowledge

Strategy 4 - Developing OSH information system

Strategy 5 - Developing effective mechanism for OSH administration


4. International Standards/Covenants on Occupational Safety and Health

Thailand, as one of the founding members of the International Labour Organization (ILO), has ratified the ILO Convention No. 187 -- Promotional Framework for Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 2006 (5th ASEAN member state to ratify this convention on 23rd March, 2016). ILO Convention No. 187 is one of the three key occupational safety and health instruments of the ILO. This Convention will enter into force for Thailand on 23 March 2017.

Read 15467 times Last modified on Wednesday, 27 April 2016 11:49

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